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The DrillMaster Drill Team Improvement Seminar

DrillMaster Drill Team Improvement SeminarJROTC units across the country send drill teams and colors guards to drill competitions for many of the school year’s Saturdays. Whether your team is competitive in World Class events or can only afford a couple of hours of practice each week, everyone can benefit from this course.

Download the flyer from my Downloads page under the DrillMaster University heading.

What you receive when you attend a seminar:

  • Books! One copy of each of the DrillMaster books, the canon of exhibition and regulation drill. Ceremonial drill books extra.
  • Foundational education to help improve your drill team: armed, unarmed, regulation and exhibition
  • An introduction to movement
  • A presentation of exhibition and regulation drill videos with a breakdown of performances according to the World Drill Association adjudication standards
  • Techniques on applying the fundamentals learned
  • PLUS! DrillMaster Diagnosis sessions throughout- bring recordings of your team

Where and when can I attend?

  • Seminars are conducted throughout the year.

What about hosting a clinic locally?

  • A classroom with a projector for a computer
  • Ten to twenty instructors
  • Clinic host discounts apply which means a clinic is also a fundraiser!




The DrillMaster DrillUp! Clinic

DrillUp! Movement Clinic
DrillUp! Movement Clinic

I’ve been teaching in various official capacities since 1986 and since 2009, I’ve been teaching various elements of what I have developed into a formal clinic for cadets, mainly, and JROTC instructors. The best news is that the clinic is free! I teach it to JROTC units as I travel the country instructing first responder ceremonial units.

The text of the flyer that I created is below and you can download the flyer at my Downloads page under the heading DrillMaster University. The best thing to do is get cadets from all over your area to attend the clinic that last three to five hours, depending on how many cadets attend.

What you get in the clinic:

  • Command voice principles
  • Movement mechanics and principles
  • Effort qualities
  • An understanding of unarmed exhibition movement
  • An introduction to armed exhibition movement
  • Teamwork activities

What does it take to host a clinic?

  • A gymnasium or some place similar
  • Access to an electrical outlet is helpful

What do the cadets need to bring?

  • Water and snacks for the breaks
  • Sturdy shoes for marching
  • Comfortable clothing
  • Any kind of drill rifle

What is the price for cadets?

  • A positive attitude
  • A Desire to learn
  • A willingness to improve
  • $0

How many cadets can attend?

  • 20 minimum, up to 100


First Overseas DrillMaster Trip

During my 20-year US Air Force Career, I was stationed in three European countries and Japan as well as two states. I had not been to the Middle East or the African continent.  Those two places are now added to the list.


Matt Pereau and I working with the Jordanian staff
Matt Pereau and I working with the Jordanian staff

Six Months in Planning
Apparently, I have a fan or two overseas. One just happens to live in Qatar and is part of the Police College of Qatar (PCoQ). He contacted the translation staff at the college asking for them to initiate a discussion as to how I could accomplish a significant task for them. The next six months were all about ironing out details and ensuring we were talking about the same thing in two different languages, Arabic and English.

Exhibition Drill Around the World
All one has to do is go to YouTube and see all kinds of videos that highlight drill teams performing exhibition drill. The bulk of videos is going to be of American drill teams, mostly high school JROTC. However, if you keep searching you will see some very interesting exhibition performances from all across Asia, Europe and even a few from the Middle East.

Of the performances outside of the USA, most are made up of a single-file line with some amazing ripple movements (see the Belarus Ripple Line here). That is because the rifles used now (M-16 like) do not facilitate any other effective manipulation or armed exhibition drill that includes tossing rifles around is just not a cultural thing.

After judging all kinds of visual performances since 1986, my view as to a limiting factor for exhibition drill outside America, is the use of what I consider highly ceremonial British-styled (foot) drill. Don’t get me wrong, I appreciate the style and have worked with a Canadian Army Cadets team as well as spent a few hours learning how to march being taught by British Army cadets and staff. I enjoyed learning the style and exchanging good-natured slighting remarks.

You can see this limiting factor that I previously mentioned in videos that display the style. The style does not allow for a consistent horizontal or even vertical flow for an exhibition performance (read about Flow here). As I said, it is very ceremonial in nature, and that is what makes watching the style so mesmerizing at times. For exhibition drill, though, it creates severe performance restrictions. As an example, see these selected videos (https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLcRniWQELcW4uU89-FEIL4po_e6boF6Up)

So, what is one to do when the prevailing style is British and yet one wants to knock the socks off of everyone with an exhibition drill performance? Teach a new style that is specifically for the performance and this is exactly what the PCoQ training staff was looking for.

Below is the video of the opening ceremonies of the PCoQ. The PCoQ does not have it’s own compound, it is part of the Police Training Institute. The PCoQ’s own compound will be finished some time in 2017.

The cadets here were trained for five weeks before the ceremony by the staff of the PCoQ. Just weeks prior, the cadets were in high school having not marched before. I think they did an outstanding job!

Note: I do not have pictures and video that I can share due to the Qatar Military Secrets Act, I cannot publish anything other than official work from the PCoQ. I’ll have that soon. The pictures and video I have were used for training purposes.

New, New, New!
Now that we established the style that the cadets and staff know by heart, we can see what the three-week training session entailed.

Once established, muscle memory can be difficult to recreate and that is exactly what Matt and I had to do with the 15 staff members, recreate their muscle memory. We worked Standing Manual, teaching the staff to stand with their feet together at the heels and toes, new facing movements and then a new manual of arms with totally different rifles (thank you Joe Rivas of Glendale Paradestore!), not to mention the rifles being quite a bit heavier than what the staff members were used to! We even had classroom time for briefings on how to train, how to write drill and how to judge/develop a critical eye.

Only Three Weeks?
Three weeks is not enough to learn a completely different way of drill, let alone an exhibition routine, but the staff did an amazing job of just that and they learned almost four minutes of the routine! Here is a glimpse of the graduation ceremony performance:

What’s Next?
Much more work, much more. The ultimate performance will be for the first graduation of the PCoQ in 2019. That means a great deal of practice and still more training to come and that means more news to come!


South Africa is quite a wonderful, hard and difficult country, for me, at least. For seven years Tshepo (“Tse-poh”) Tautshwane and I have known each other through Facebook. He has been very interested in drill and has wanted to start a drill team/(marching band) color guard for his church’s marching band.

Tshepo is the drum major of his band and a student at North West University majoring in music education. He plays tuba extremely well and has a passion to teach others. Below are some pictures of my trip. Top left is my wonderful new family, Lilly, Elizabeth, Nkepile (Tshepo and Elizabeth’s mom), and Natsu. Lilly and Natsu are Tshepo’s Nieces. Christian, who had to run off to school before the picture, is his nephew.

South Africa Trip 2016
South Africa Trip 2016

The bottom right picture is of Tshepo and fellow drum major for another marching band, Motlatsi Moloi. I took six color guard rifles over to help create the new auxiliary for the band. They learned some military manual of arms and also how to spin the rifles.

There is also much more to come from South Africa and the DrillMaster!

CAP 2016 Drill & Ceremonies School!

2016 CAP DCSThe Virginia Wing hosted the Middle East Region’s Drill and Ceremonies School (DCS) April 8-10, 2016 at Fort Pickett (VA) and it was a great success!

The cadets went through standing manual, command voice, first step, and individual, flight, and squadron marching. We were even able to get a couple hours of manual of the guidon, flagstaff and rifle!

Here is a link to highlight pictures taken by CAP Lt Col Kimberly Frady, 2016 CAP MER DCS.

Drill Team Organizational Guidance Examples

Drill Team TechniqueStandards. The military is about setting and maintaining standards- even exceeding them. A cadet organization is not different. An extra-curricular activity of that program also needs to set and maintain standards. Those standards are of what is expected from each team member and what each team member can expect. Here are some examples. I encourage you to look them over, copy the information, adjust it to your needs and implement it as soon as possible.

Click here to download a rough draft Word document of a Drill Team Policy Letter/Contract that I developed and use.

Example 1

  • MVD MostValuable Driller
  • Drill Team performance tied to grade

You must wear drill-appropriate clothing for all practices. This includes, shoes (no sandals), a t-shirt and shorts or long pants. Skirts and dresses are not allowed due to their ability to fly up.

Make all practices
Maintain at least C avg in all other classes
Practice on your own

Practice schedule:
September through December – every Monday 1530-1700
If in drill class: Monday, Tuesday and Thursday are drill days, no exceptions. All drill class cadets are expected to attend all afternoon practices all year long.

January through May – Monday, Tuesday & Thursday 1530-1700

Unexcused absences:
1 – counseling by your squad leader, placed in your cadet file. Parent/guardian contacted. Grade?
2 – counseling by a JROTC instructor, placed in your cadet file. Parent/guardian contacted. Grade?
3 – Meeting with parent/guardian, cadet, instructor. Grade?
4 – dismissal from team. For grade entered into system.

Immediate dismissal from team. F grade entered into system.


Example 2


SUBJECT: Honor Guard Management Policy

TO: All Color Guard and Honor Guard Cadets

1. In order to standardize policy for the training and conduct of the Honor Guard Program,

the following policy is enacted.

2. All members of Guards will be classified in one of four different experience levels.

a. Color Guard (Level 1) is comprised of cadets that desire to test into Honor Guard.

Level 1 Guards must adhere to the following policies to be eligible for Honor


(1) Practice at least 3 times a week under supervision.

(2) Pass all uniform inspections with a minimum score of 90%.

(3) Pass all Color Guard uniform inspections.

(4) Pass Honor Guard Written Test.

(5) Pass Honor Guard Sequence Test.

(6) Pass Honor Guard Performance Test.

(7) Complete a minimum of 5 events with minimal discrepancies.

(8) Recommended by Training NCOIC, Honor Guard NCOIC, and Honor

Guard Commander.

b. Honor Guard Level 2 is comprised of cadets that have been awarded Honor Guard

status and have less than 25 events as an Honor Guard member. Level 2 Guards

must adhere to the following policies to be eligible for Honor Guard Level 3:

(1) Practice a minimum of 3 days before an event.

(2) Pass all uniform inspections with a minimum score of 95%.

(3) Pass all Honor Guard uniform inspections.

(4) Complete a minimum of 50 events with minimal discrepancies.

(5) Pass Honor Guard Advance Test/CTC Test.

(6) Recommended by Honor Guard NCOIC, and Honor Guard Commander.


c. Honor Guard Level 3 is comprised of Honor Guard members that have less than

50 events as an Honor Guard member. Level 3 Guards must adhere to the

following policies to be eligible for Honor Guard Level 4:

(1) Practice a minimum of 1 day before an event.

(2) Pass all uniform inspections with a minimum score of 95%.

(3) Pass all Honor Guard uniform inspections.

(4) Complete a minimum of 25 events as Detail Commander.

(5) Complete a minimum of 75 events with minimal discrepancies.

(6) Conduct/assist training of Color Guard at least 2 times a week.

(7) Recommended by Honor Guard NCOIC, and Honor Guard Commander.

d. Honor Guard Level 4 is comprised of Honor Guard members that have less than

75 events as an Honor Guard member. Level 4 Guards must adhere to the

following policies:

(1) Practice a minimum of 1 day before an event.

(2) Pass all uniform inspections with a minimum score of 100%.

(3) Pass all Honor Guard uniform inspections.

(4) Plan/Supervise training of Honor Guard Details at least 3 times a week.

(5) Conduct Honor Guard Uniform Inspections.

(6) Evaluate Color Guard/Honor Guard events and competence.

(7) Plan/Conduct Competition Training Sessions.

3. In the event that a Honor Guard Member does not fulfill their responsibility of

attendance, inspections, conduct, or participation, the following discipline policy applies:

(1) Missed more than three or more practices unexcused in a single semester:

a. Placed on Suspension List

b. Not allowed to wear Guard’s Uniform

c. Mandatory practice with Color Guard until re-instatement

(2) Missed more than two unexcused practices while on suspension:

a. Member’s status will be reviewed for removal from Honor Guard

(3) Missed/Late for Event:

a. Placed on Suspension List.

b. Not allowed to wear Guard’s Uniform.

c. Mandatory practice with Color Guard until re-instatement

determination (after three weeks) by NCOIC and/or Commander.

determination (after three weeks) by NCOIC and/or Commander.


(4) Missed/Late for two Events:

a. Suspended Indefinitely

b. Member’s status will be reviewed for removal from Honor Guard

(5) Missed more than two uniform wears in a single six-weeks:

a. Placed on suspension for a 3-week period.

b. Not allowed to wear Guard’s uniform.

(6) Missed more than three uniform wears in a single six-weeks:

a. Placed on Suspension List

b. Not allowed to wear Guard’s uniform

c. Removed from current level

(7) Missed more than three uniform wears in a single semester:

a. Placed on Suspension List

b. Not allowed to wear Guard’s uniform

c. Mandatory practice with Color Guard until re-instatement

determination (after three weeks) by NCOIC and/or Commander.

*All reviews will be handled on a case by case basis.

4. This policy will take effect immediately following approval of the Senior Aerospace

Science Instructor and will remain in effect until superseded.


Example 3


The United States Air Force and the William S. Hart Union High School District make

considerable resources available for utilization within the JROTC program. They make

this commitment for this intended purpose:

To develop citizens of character dedicated to serving their community and



The CA-20063 Cadet Corps exists to instill in cadets the values associated with citizenship

and community service for the betterment of society and for the betterment of the

individual members of the corps.


Cadets will value the principles of citizenship and community service

Cadets will develop the highest degree of personal responsibility

Cadets will attain a sense of accomplishment and self-worth


Cadet Honor Code


The honor code is specific and clear in what it demands. All cadets are expected to have

complete integrity in both word and deed, to possess sustained self-control, and to exhibit

conscious effort in all that is done. All cadets will do their own work. However, in the

attainment of group goals, cadets will assist others in a spirit of cooperation and


When questionable behavior or wrongful behavior is observed, the observing cadet will

take immediate action to stop such behavior and to report that behavior to superiors.

The code is applicable at all times, not just when in the uniform or participating in

corps activities.

When a code violation is noted, or even suspected, all cadets will diligently work to bring

the offending cadet to corrective action. Quibbling and evasive statements are not

consistent with abiding with the code.

Core Values

The following core values, if adopted and practiced, will serve as anchors that will keep

each cadet safely grounded on high moral ground. The core values are.



Integrity embodies the notion of complete and unimpaired adherence to a code. Even

though a cadet may adhere to Corps values while participating in JROTC activities, that

cadet would not exhibit integrity if those values were violated in other contexts. Integrity

demands that adherence in ALL aspects of one’s life.

Service-before-self entails actions that contribute to the welfare of others and bestows

benefits upon them without any expectation of favor in return. It usually entails a certain

amount of sacrifice, though it might be minor in nature. For example, spending one’s

Saturday morning placing American flags on veterans’ graves for Memorial Day

observances would entail a sacrifice – free time to spend leisurely.

Excellence. You will be recognized. What you do and how you do it will likely dictate

what recognition you will receive. Mediocrity is easy. It requires little effort. If you

practice it, you’ll reap its rewards, which are usually more negative than positive. On the

other hand, excellence in all that you do will produce recognition as well. It will be

positive and will lead to greater opportunities and rewards. Many things we do in life are

done out of a habit or an established pattern that is done without much conscious

thought. You can choose to establish a habit of excellence and enjoy its rewards or you

can establish habits that are characterized by mediocrity and suffer the consequences.

Cadets strive to make excellence a habit.

Respect for Authority

Respect for Authority is vital to the success of civilized society and the institutions found

within a society. Societal rules facilitate the efficient use of resources and the attainment

of higher living standards. Without rules and respect for them, we would be condemned

to live our lives in chaos and in the lowest of subsistence levels.

Leadership training includes the understanding and development of a strong respect for

authority. That includes the perspectives of holding authority and being subject to


Learning respect for authority begins with learning to be a follower. In order to be a

good follower, one must respect the authority of superiors. Note how the previous

sentence is worded. It does not say that one must respect the person who has authority

over you. It says you must respect the authority that the superior holds. The wording is

subtle, but the meaning is vastly different. However, superiors, generally speaking, have

earned their positions and personally deserve respect as well.

Good follower ship is characterized by active listening, accurately following instructions,

doing assigned work as best as you can, and obeying all rules of conduct. It also entails

respectful and courteous behavior toward superiors. Superiors are more experienced and

are charged with various responsibilities. Being so, superiors are entitled to respect and

courtesy from the less experienced and younger cadets.

Superiors must respect authority as well. Authority can become intoxicating and cause

the superior to be abusive in their use of authority. Superiors must guard against

arbitrary and unreasonable use of their authority. Superiors should exercise their authority

within the bounds of their responsibilities and then execute those responsibilities in a

manner that recognizes the individual person and that protects individual dignity.


Cadet Pledge

“I have chosen to be a cadet in the United States Air Force Junior Reserve Officer

Training Corps. In doing so, I pledge allegiance to the United States of America and to

the cadet honor code. I will strive to be a productive citizen of this country; therefore, I

promise to work hard and to diligently educate my mind and train my body so that I can

accomplish this task.”

General Guidelines

Cadets become leaders by exhibiting qualities of intelligence, good judgment,

decisiveness and initiative. Cadets inspire others by setting examples of confidence and

maturity. In order to realize the highest potential, cadets must maintain high standards

of self-discipline, high ideals, good manners, social grace, appropriate dress (in and out

of uniform), good grooming, and language use.

Cadets will display friendliness and respect toward fellow cadets, other students,

faculty, school staff, and visitors. Cadets shall show respect by addressing instructors

and guest speakers as “sir” or “ma’am”. Cadets shall not engage in “horse play,”

profanity, personal display of affection, disparaging remarks, or like conduct

that may discredit self, fellow cadets, JROTC, GVHS, CHS, HHS, BHS, and/or AOC.

Cadet Officers will exercise discretion in enforcing military courtesy. Officers should

not publicly correct or reprimand a junior cadet. However, officers do have the

responsibility to address infractions of military customs and courtesies and shall do so in

an appropriate manner.

Cadets shall be prepared for each class or activity. This includes having proper

textbooks, paper, pens/pencils and having all assignments completed. Cadets shall

properly store equipment, study materials, and the like when finished using them.

Cadets shall not litter the classroom with soda, candy, personal belongings, or

discarded paper. Cadets shall leave the classroom in proper order and not in disarray.

Tables and chairs shall remain in their usual place.

Cadets shall:

1. Treat others with courtesy

2. Not use profane, obscene, or vulgar language

3. Speak in a conversational tone, avoid yelling, and use no demeaning


4 Not enter the cadet office area without instructor, Cadet Group Commander,

Cadet Vice Commander, or Mission Support Officer permission.

5. Not block doorways or hallways, individually or in a group

6. Keep food items outside of the JROTC unless authorized by Instructors

7. Not express PDA (Personal Display of Affection)

8. Not behave boisterously in the classroom, the corridor outside of JROTC, or on


9. Not commit distracting behavior during class

10. Not put feet on desks/chairs nor sit or lie down on the same

11. Place trash in proper containers (not recycling bin)

12. Obey JROTC related instructions of a ranking cadet and Instructors.



All cadets are subject to the honor code, standards of behavior/conduct, published

general rules, the JROTC instructors, JROTC related instructions of ranking cadets, and

school rules. Infractions upon the above noted rules should be addressed. When

observing a JROTC infraction or aware of an infraction, all cadets are empowered to

address the matter. Minor infractions may be addressed and, if possible, corrected on the

spot. A cadet commander may result to issuing demerits, which affect the cadet’s grade if

too many are accumulated. For other infractions, cadets will have to use judgment and

discretion as to whether the matter should be reported to an instructor for resolution.

Team Commanders may also issue non-demeaning or non-physical disciplinary action

to cadets in their chain of command for infractions. Any abuse of this system should be

reported to the SASI, or ASI.

Where warranted, the Corps Commander may conduct an investigation or convene

an inquiry board. All cadets are expected to fully cooperate with any investigation or

inquiry. Where discipline is warranted, the Corps Commander is empowered to impose

discipline subject to due process and instructor advice and review. For example, a cadet

may be disciplined by demotion in rank or perhaps by suspension from participating in an


Reasons for an inquiry board (Disciplinary Evaluation Board):

A. Fighting

B. Insubordination

C. Vandalism

D. Academic Dishonesty

E. Disrespect for the Flag

F. Excessive Demerits

G. Improper Uniform Wear

H. Improper Conduct

I. Denial of issued Demerits


Cadets may receive merits for participating in community service. They may also earn

accommodations for demonstrating exceptional behavior or citizenship. One merit or

accommodation will cancel out one demerit.


The organization of the cadet corps is patterned after the hierarchal structure of the Air

Force. The CA-20063rd Cadet Corps is organized as a Group with two Squadrons.

CA-20063rd Cadet Commander

The Group Commander leads the cadet corps. A Group Staff of 4th year JROTC cadets,

responsible for functional areas such as Operations and Administration, assist the Group

Commander by:

 Providing research and advice

 Planning and coordinating activities

 Developing policy and plans.



The Group Commander appoints Squadron Commanders from Upper Class Cadet Officers.

These commanders execute the orders and directions of the Group Commander.

The CA-20063rd Group has three squadrons:

st Cadet Squadron, 2


Operations Staff Officer (OS):

Squadrons, Drill Teams, Color Guard, and Rocketry are under operational control of

OPNS. Commanders report directly to the Group Staff Operations Officer. Teams

represent the corps in drill competitions and in events where the colors are presented.

Mission Support Officer (MS):

Upper class cadets perform administrative tasks under the direction of the Group Staff

Mission Support Officer.


Instructors(ASI and SASI) appoint Flight Commanders and Flight Sergeants

Class periods 3 and 4 form Flights Alpha and Bravo in the 1st Squadron

Class periods 5 and 6 form Flights Charlie and Delta in the 2nd Squadron

Class periods 6 and 7 form Flights Echo and Foxtrot in the 3rd Squadron

Vice Commander CV

Executive Officer xo


Resource Management RMS 1st SQDN cc 2nd SQDN cc 3rd SQDN cc








 Prior cadet corps commander provides special assistance to the SASI/ASI

 Major Project Planning / Federal Inspections



 Attainment of AFJROTC mission, goals and objectives,

 Command and control of group Activities

 Uniform wear, Grooming and Appearance of Cadets.

 Supervision of Vice Commander, Operations Squadron Commander. Mission Support,

Executive Officer and Senior Cadet Advisor.


 Assume command of the group in the absence of the Commander

 Advice on policy, procedure and compliance issues (school and JROTC)

 Investigates disputes regarding interpretation and infraction of rules.

 Advice and assistance to the Corps Commander as directed.

 Manage Outstanding Flight Competition


 Staff Coordination

 Recorder for Staff Meetings for later reference

 Duties as assigned


 Advise the commander on safety issues.

 Conduct E2C Physical Training

 Record Cadet E2C Data


 Report Status of Cadet Corps morale to Commander

 Advise Group Commander on Cadet personnel issues and promotions.

 Perform advocate duties for cadets meeting Disciplinary Boards.

 Education of cadet corps regarding honor code and rules


 Publication of Weekly Operations Order outlining objectives, events and uniform


 Grooming, appearance, discipline, efficiency, training and conduct of all cadet


 Control and supervision to insure successful accomplishment of unit objectives and safe

completion of scheduled events.

 Supervision of 1st and 2nd Squadron Commanders, Color / Honor Guard Commanders,

Sword / Drill Team Commanders, and Rocketry Commander


 Command and control of administrative, financial, personnel, and logistical activities in

support of group mission objectives.

 Assigned tasks and projects directed by the group commander



 Corps Budget Preparation

 Conduct of audits

 Coordination of fund raising projects


 Input and maintenance of a cadet personnel file into the automated Cadet Information

Management System

 Advice to Commander on promotion

 Management of Cadet recognition program including awards and ribbons


 Monitoring of cash control procedures

 Completion of Purchase Orders

 Management of petty cash fund for concessions


 Maintains inventory of JROTC furniture, equipment, and uniforms.

 Controls receipt, issue, return and disposal of uniform items.

 Maintains office and expendable supplies


 Controls receipt, issue, return and disposal of uniform items.


 Maintenance of Corps Organization Chart history

 Publicity of Corps Events

 Publication of cadet newsletter or Web Site

 Supervision of Corps History


 Computer Systems and Automated Data


 Prepare their units for drill and ceremonies and competitions.

 Manage uniform wear

 Submit names for awards















All cadets carry a cadet rank. It designates position within the cadet corps structure and

hierarchy. The greater the responsibilities carried by a cadet, the higher the rank that

cadet will hold. There are two levels of rank: Cadet Ranks and C/Officer Ranks.

Generally speaking, underclass cadets form the workforce and the cadet officers provide

supervision and leadership. See the Figure on page 12 for Cadet Rank Insignia.

All cadets are assigned a permanent grade commensurate with the number of JROTC

years satisfactorily completed. The highest permanent grade for first-year cadets is

C/Senior Airman. Second-year cadets are C/Staff Sergeant. Third-year cadets are

C/Technical Sergeant. Fourth-year cadets are C/Master Sergeant. At the discretion of the

SASI, cadets in their final term of AFJROTC may retain the highest rank to which they

have been promoted, regardless of course level

Cadets may be assigned and wear a temporary grade based on a specific

position. The Unit Manning Document lists the maximum grade for the associated

position. Temporary grades serve for rotation of responsibility and to avoid imbalances in

grade structure. Cadets serving in a temporary grade revert to their permanent grade

upon completion of assigned duties, unless authorized by the SASI. Retention of

temporary grade is contingent upon satisfactory performance and behavior as determined

by the SASI/ASI.

Newly enrolled students enter the corps in the cadet ranks and will hold the grade/rank

of Cadet Airman Basic. As a cadet progresses in knowledge, experience, and ability, the

cadet may be promoted to the next higher rank. Conversely, when a cadet demonstrates

the inability or unwillingness to perform at the required level or demonstrates the lack of

discipline to hold rank, the cadet may be reduced in rank.

 Cadet ranks, in order of precedence:

C-1: Airman Basic C-2: Airman

C-3: Airman First Class C-4: Senior Airman

C-5: Staff Sergeant C-6: Technical Sergeant

C-7: Master Sergeant C-8: Senior Master Sergeant

C-9: Chief Master Sergeant

Cadet members may aspire to move into the Cadet Officer levels of corps leadership. In

order to do so, cadets must complete a Junior Officer Training Course or participate in a

leadership position in Summer Leadership School. Successful candidates will receive a

Commission as a C/2

Officer Ranks –

 Cadet Officer ranks, in order of precedence:

CO-1: Second Lieutenant CO-2: First Lieutenant

CO-3: Captain CO-4: Major

CO-5: Lieutenant Colonel CO-6: Colonel




Generally, promotion at the lower cadet ranks is available to all cadets on a fully

qualified basis. That is, if a cadet meets standards (dress and appearance, physical

fitness, actively participates, has no adverse information and no disciplinary actions), and

the like, that cadet can reasonably expect to be promoted.

Generally, the higher the rank, the more a cadet must compete with fellow cadets for

the available promotions. Even though a cadet may be qualified and ready to assume the

responsibilities associated with the next higher rank, the best competitor will likely receive

the promotion (compete on basis of promotion test scores, record of performance, dress

and appearance, leadership potential, etc.)

The normal promotion cycle is on the semester basis; however promotions are

considered toward the end of each Quarter. Promotions are announced and the

successful cadets assume their new rank upon announcement.

Promotion decisions are sometimes made by convening a promotion board1

sometimes are made based upon published criteria. At least one promotion opportunity

each academic year will be with a promotion board, but not necessarily for all ranks.

Subject to SASI/ASI approval the Corps Commander may give one temporary cadet rank

promotion to top performers with leadership potential. This ensures recognition for

motivated individuals and increased opportunity to assume larger roles within the corps

leadership structure.

Cadets submit a Promotion Cycle Data form one week prior to the end of each new

quarter. The accuracy of the information on the sheet is the responsibility of the cadet. To

be able to promote a cadet must not be currently failing any class, or have been demoted

during the previous quarter. Also, the cadet must have a positive merit balance. The

cadet must have a recommendation of the Squadron Commander. The Personnel Officer

will review the Promotion Cycle Data form. Cadets should have enough merits to be

weighed with the test. Cadets should have enough merits to make up for low test scores.

The maximum points possible on the promotion tests are 100 (plus any points for bonus


In order to promote, a cadet must have a minimum total points from accumulated

merits, monthly evaluation, and test as follows:

A. Promotion to any Airman rank requires 75 points. (Minimum of 75% on Test)

B. Promotion to any Junior Non-Commissioned Officer rank (c/SSgt.-c/TSgt.)

C. Promotion to any Senior Non-Commissioned Officer rank (c/MSgt. –c/CMSgt.)

requires 85 points. (Minimum of 85% on Test)

recommendation from a SNCO Board. (Minimum of 90% on Test and a positive

recommendation from a promotion board)

Officer Board

D. Promotion to any Officer rank requires a positive recommendation from an

Merit requirements vary depending on various aspects such as but not limited to:

Service event availability, promotion level and the quarter in which the test is given.

A copy of the cadet’s promotion test will be kept on file, accessible to the cadet by

asking the Personnel Officer for an opportunity to review it.

1 A promotion board consists of senior cadet officers, usually 3 members. The board members may consider bearing,

general knowledge, dress, appearance, and uniform wear. The candidate’s performance before the board is evaluated.


Any cadet who satisfactorily completes a JROTC Leadership School may be promoted

one grade, up to the rank of c/TSgt. Cadets already c/TSgt or above will meet a

promotion board without taking the normal promotion test or having the requisite merits.

Promotions to officer ranks above c/Captain will be selected by the SASI.

Senior Non-Commissioned Officer Record/Performance Review Board

The Executive Officer will preside over a board of within two days of the promotion

test to review NCO records and performance. The board will consider factual data and

render a recommendation based on the cadet’s personnel file, and the overall

performance as an NCO. The individual will not be called to meet the board.

Company Grade Officer Board

The Group Commander will preside over an Officer Record/Performance Review Board

with the operation officer, cadet vice commander and mission support officer. The board

will convene within 2 days of the promotion test. The board will consider factual data and

render a recommendation based on the cadet’s personnel file, and last three performance

evaluations as a Junior Officer. The cadet may be called to meet the board if necessary to

aid in promotion potential analysis.

All cadets sitting on the Officer Board, will be of higher rank than the candidate. Officer

Board Cadets will remain the same for every cadet that month, unless restricted by rank.

The Board Cadets will discuss the capabilities of the cadet. The Board will then vote. 3/4

vote needed to pass board.


Evaluation measures your achievement of AFJROTC goals and objectives, and

informs you and parent/guardians of your progress. Instructors will tell you what the

objectives and standards of behavior are from the very beginning of the school year, and

guide you toward these goals. They will keep you informed of your progress, at all times.

If you have questions, please–inquire about you grade status before or after class.

Basis for the Grading Policy:

As stated in the above, grading is based on achieving the goals and objectives of the

ROTC program. You will be held accountable for academic achievement, proper wear of

uniform, performance of drill maneuvers, use of military customs and courtesies, and

participation in leadership activities or physical fitness.


Class studies account for 40% of your grade. Achievement of learning objectives will

be measured through assignments, examination questions and performance criteria for

leadership and science courses. Late assignments will only be accepted after referral for

an Extended Learning Opportunity session.

Uniform Wear:

Accounts for 25% of your grade. Failure to wear the uniform on Wednesdays will

result in uniform demerits and a possible lowering of the grade. You will be inspected in

uniform and docked 1 gig for each infraction. (i.e. Haircut, facial hair, insignia etc.).


Uniform wear may be made up within two days of return to class if you have an excused

absence. The Cadet Staff determines the uniform combination of the day. The staff may

authorize wear of a utility uniform once a month. These uniforms are limited to the Battle

Dress Uniform (BDU). When wearing the BDU, you will be inspected the same as when

wearing the Air Force uniform. You will not be formally inspected in the T-shirt or the

sweats. However, if the uniform is dirty, altered or defaced, you will receive reduced

uniform credit, and improper uniform wear is subject to disciplinary action.

Drill and Ceremony and Physical Fitness / Leadership Training

Mastery of maneuvers, military procedures, self-discipline and fitness progress will

account for 25% of the grade. Participation and positive attitude will be evaluated as key

elements in the learning process. 3rd and 4th year cadets will be evaluated on

management performance and leadership in lieu of physical fitness criteria.


General Philosophy The uniform is not simply another piece of clothing. It is a

distinctive symbol. Uniforms have a history that dates to the times of the Roman

Empire, more than 2,000 years ago. With such a lengthy history, there is a strong

tradition of service associated with the uniform and those who have worn the uniform

before you, hold dearly all that the wear of the uniform embodies. Do not take it lightly,

for in doing so, you dishonor those who have gone before you, many of whom gave their

life for the freedoms and benefits that you enjoy.

The AFJROTC uniform is blue. It is distinctive. As with all the branches of the armed

services, each has a tradition of a color. For example, the color green is associated with

the U.S. Army. So, wear your Air Force uniform with pride in your JROTC unit. Keep it

clean, keep it neat, and wear it correctly. Learn the rules for uniform wear and be

mindful to follow them. Help your fellow cadets in conforming to the uniform wear


Uniform issue and accountability

Cadets will be issued uniforms and uniform accessories. Uniforms and accessories are

property of the United States Air Force and are loaned to the cadet at no cost to the

cadet. Each cadet receives approximately $250 worth of uniform items. Cadets shall

return these items to JROTC in a clean state and in good repair. Should cadets lose or

damage these items through neglect, reimbursement to the government may be

requested. However, where uniforms become unserviceable through fair wear and tear,

cadets may return worn items and receive a serviceable item on a one for one exchange



The uniform will be worn only as prescribed by the Air Force and Air Force Junior ROTC

instructions. The uniform will not be worn while participating in student demonstrations,

for crowd control, or under any circumstance where its wear may reflect discredit upon an

individual or the Air Force JROTC program

Only items of U.S. Air Force uniforms are authorized for wear on any uniform used in an

AFJROTC program


When in uniform, act professionally and with dignity. This means no horseplay or other

boisterous behavior. Misbehavior is not tolerated when in uniform.

Fitting Requirements

Light Blue Shirt: The shirt must fit the neck comfortably and no more than a small

gap when buttoned. It must be tucked into the trousers. The front of the shirt, the

button line, must be in alignment with the trousers’ fly. Buttons must be buttoned,

including the pocket buttons.

Trousers: The fronts of the pant legs should rest on the shoes, making a slight break

in the front crease. The bottom edge of the rear of the pant legs should rest just

above the top of the heel and well below the top of the heel cup. The rear should

be no longer than 3⁄4 inch below than the front. The upper portion of the legs

should fit loosely. The waist should fit snuggly and permit wear without the pocket

openings to be spread open.

Skirt: The bottom of the skirt should rest from the top of the knee to the bottom of

the knee.

Service Dress Coat: Coats must be large enough in the shoulders to permit

simultaneous full forward reach with both arms. The shoulder seams should rest

over the edge of the shoulders or slightly to the outside of the shoulders. When

standing at attention, the sleeves should cover the base of the thumb and no

further. When buttoned, the front of the coat should not extend farther than one to

two inches in front of the chest when given a slight pull. The split portion of the

bottom rear of the coat should not spread open.

Light Weight Jacket: The jacket must have shoulder room (see Service Dress Coat

instructions) with the thermal liner in place. The sleeves cover the wrists and no

farther without producing wrinkles when at the position of attention.

Belt: Must be worn at all times with items that have belt loops. It fits snugly around

the waist without bunching. The silver tip will be exposed beyond the buckle as

much as possible without exposing attached blue webbing. The buckle’s own right

side must be in alignment with the “gig” line. It is on the opposite side for females in

the Service uniform.

Shoes: New shoes should be worn a few hours for several days until they are “broken

in” so that you may wear them a full day. The shoes must be kept polished and in

good condition.

Accouterments: After the initial fitting of the uniform, the proper placement of

uniform accouterments is critical. Careful placement and display of rank, insignia,

and awards is required.

Maintenance Requirements

Shirts and socks should be washed after each wearing. The shirt collar requires more


Be careful to not allow perspiration and skin oils to accumulate on it.

Belts rarely need cleaning. However, a little warm, soapy water and a light brushing with

a thorough rinsing will usually be all that is needed.


Trousers, skirts, service dress coats, caps, berets, light weight jackets and liners, and ties

must be dry cleaned as often as necessary to keep them clean, without odor, and


Shoes shall be shined to a glossy appearance. The sole edge should be clean and

“dressed” with an edge dressing.

Uniform Combinations

Combination A (Class A Service Dress): Combination A is the most formal uniform. It

consists of the blue pants, blue dress coat, blue shirt and tie (along with the usual

accouterments). Medals should only be worn on the service coat

Combination B: This is Combination A without the service dress coat. Ribbons should be

worn on the shirt.

Combination C: This is Combination B without the tie.

Combination D: Utility Uniform: BDU or Corps issued T-shirt

Required Wear

Generally, at all JROTC sponsored activities, a uniform will be designated for wear. Aside

from JROTC sponsored activities, cadets are required to wear the uniform for

Headquarters Staff Visits, and the designated uniform day per school week. On the

designated uniform school day, cadets must wear the uniform for the entire school day.








As a cadet, your personal appearance now reflects not only upon yourself, but also upon

the JROTC Corps, Golden Valley High School, and the United States Air Force. Because

you are associated with these groups, it is now upon you to protect the public image of

these organizations.


Clothing: The uniform and civilian clothing will be clean, neat, in good repair and without


Hair: Dyed hair must be a natural color. It must be clean, neat and properly groomed.

 Males: Hair must be kept off the ears and collar. No more than 1⁄4 inch in bulk

 Females: Hair must not extend below the bottom of the collar. If a hair band is

at margins above and behind the ears and on the neck.

used, it must be the same color as the hair.

Facial Hair: Cadets will be clean-shaven.

Sideburns: will be neatly trimmed and no more than 1 1⁄2 inches wide. The base will end

with a clean-shaven horizontal line. They will not extend below the ear canal.

Finger Nails: will be clean and appropriately trimmed. Females may polish their nails


Earrings: Only females are allowed to wear earrings. Earrings are limited to small gold,

silver, pearl, or clear spherical objects. Only one earring per ear lobe.

Finger Rings: Cadets may wear up to three rings per hand.

Body Rings: Rings other than earrings and finger rings are not permitted.



Cadets who make positive contributions are eligible to receive awards and ribbons

in recognition of their service. Certain awards and ribbons are presented at the end

of the academic year in an appropriate setting. All other ribbons are awarded once

Criteria are met. Example Dress and Appearance Ribbon. The criteria for awards and

ribbons are found in AFOATSI 36-2001.


Are presented at the Annual Awards night in April or May


Outstanding third-year cadet

The award recipient displays positive attitude; initiative, judgment, and

self-confidence; courteous demeanor; capacity for responsibility, high

productivity, adaptability to change; highest personal and ethical standards and

strong positive convictions; and outstanding personal appearance

Rank in the AS class top 5% and academic class top 10%


Recognizes outstanding third-year cadet preparing for a military career

Demonstrates patriotism, love of country, and service to the nation; the potential

and desire to pursue a military career

Rank in the AS class top 10% and academic class top 20%


Fourth-year cadet based on the cadet’s overall scholastic achievements.

Rank in the AS class top 25% and academic class top 10%

Demonstrate leadership qualities; Actively participate in student activities


Fourth-year cadet

Demonstrate qualities in military leadership, discipline, character, and citizenship

Rank in the top 25% of AFJROTC class.


or 4



Demonstrate qualities of dependability and good character; adherence to military

discipline; Possess leadership ability and patriotic values.

Rank in the AS class top 25% and academic class top 25%




2nd or 3rd year cadet

Positive attitude; Personal appearance; initiative, dependability, judgment, and

self-confidence; capacity for responsibility, adaptability, and maintenance of high

personal standards.

AS class A Grade and good scholastic standing in all classes


rd or 4th year cadet:


Demonstrate Positive courteous attitude; Outstanding personal appearance;

Attributes of initiative, judgment, and self-confidence; capacity for responsibility,

high productivity

Rank in the top 10% of AS class


st year cadet


Outstanding accomplishments or service to the JROTC unit.


Third-year cadet

Demonstrate high order of loyalty to the unit, school, and country; high moral

character; exceptional potential for military leadership

Good academic standing


rd or 4th year cadet


Demonstrate positive attitude; outstanding military bearing and conduct; strong

positive courtesy, dependability, punctuality, respect, and cooperation;

leadership potential

Color guard or drill team member

AFJROTC grade of “B” overall average grade of “C”; active in student activities


nd or 3rd year cadet


Demonstrate potential for outstanding leadership and promote American ideals

Top 25% of academic class


Top 10% AFJROTC class; Top 50% of High School class


nd 0r 3rd year cadet



Encourage Americanism by participation in activities or community projects.

Demonstrate dependability, character, discipline, citizenship and patriotism.

Top 25% of class


rd or 4th year cadet


Demonstrate positive attitude toward country; Participate in school activities and

community affairs

Hold a leadership position in cadet corps and “B” average in all subjects.


nd Year Cadet


Demonstrate outstanding military leadership, discipline, character, and citizenship

Top 25% of the AFJROTC class


Outstanding 1st year cadet

Exhibit best military bearing, personal appearance, deportment and leadership





st 2



Actively participate in cadet corps activities and 50% of all unit service programs

AS class grade of “B” and good academic standing


Annual Award recognizes outstanding 1st 2


Displays outstanding leadership performance beyond expected standards


Awarded for a significant achievement as deemed appropriate by the SASI


Recognition of achievements and services rendered specifically on behalf of

AFJROTC, which are clearly outstanding and exceptional.


Awarded to cadets enrolled during HQ inspections when unit earns an

“outstanding” rating



Academic excellence by attaining an overall “B” grade point average and “A”

average in AFJROTC for one School Year.


Awarded each academic term to members of the outstanding flight for superior

Academic, Service, Uniform Wear, and Participation in Activities


Awarded once for completion of leadership school.


Awarded to drill team members for participating in drill meets.


Awarded to team members in an orienteering meet.


Demonstrated exceptional leadership in achieving objectives through the

coordinating Corps programs (dining-out chairperson, military ball chairperson,



Participation in at least 75 percent of all scheduled drill team events


Distinguished participation in 5 color guard events.


Participation in at least 75 percent of all scheduled Honor Guard events.


 Performance of 20 hours in school, community, or AFJROTC service projects.


Successful accomplishment physical fitness program.


Recruit two students into AFJROTC or participate in unit recruiting activity


Participation in co curricular competitive activities (cadet competitions, parades,

rocket meets, academic meets.). .



No more than 4 excused absences and no unexcused absences in an academic



No suspensions of any kind, or adverse reports from staff or faculty in an academic



Two Selections as outstanding cadet, conforming with all AFJROTC dress and

appearance standards, during weekly flight uniform inspections.


Successful Completion of two Semesters in AFJROTC


 Nominations for the Outstanding Cadet and Cadet Officer will be submitted two

weeks prior to

 the end of each semester. Commanders will nominate Cadets on the Quarterly

Evaluation form.

 Staff Officers and Squadron Commanders will nominate cadet officers for

Outstanding Officer.

 Aerospace Science Instructors, and the Principal will determine the recipient for

each category.


 The Cadet Staff will determine the Outstanding Flight based on Honors Flight


 averages for the semester. Aerospace Science Instructors then award the

Outstanding Flight

 Ribbon on the last uniform day of the semester.




Activities outside the classroom are provided. These activities enhance the JROTC

experience. The JROTC program encourages all cadets to fully participate in as

many activities as each cadet can manage. Each of these Co-curricular activities is

intended to:

Promote camaraderie

Develop management and social skills

Supplement classroom learning and provide an opportunity to engage in fun.

As they are separate from the academic course work, Co-curricular activities require

time before and after normal school hours and weekends. Some are competitive in

nature and require considerable practice to become proficient. Co-curricular

activities include:

Drill Teams Dining In Military Ball

Color Guard Awards Night Rocketry

Parental Permission

For off campus activities, parental permission is necessary. Parents are provided a

form letter where parents may provide written permission for a cadet to participate

in ROTC activities.

Release from Classes other than JROTC

JROTC instructors will arrange for cadet releases from other classes. Releases will

only be granted where the cadet is in good standing with ROTC and with the school.

Generally, when a cadet has a failing grade in any class, releases will not be

requested. Cadets may be afforded an opportunity to verify “passing status” in

order to obtain a release. However, verification must be in writing and obtained at

least one day prior to travel. Cadets who have experienced disciplinary action

during the preceding and current grading period may be restricted from



Summer leadership school courses are designed to provide further citizenship

orientation and additional learning experiences in a working military community.

Leadership skills and teamwork are emphasized where the success of the team

depends upon the contributions of all team members.

Aerospace and Technology Honors Camp

Two 3

school during the summer of 2011. Once nominated, the cadet will go through an

application process which will determine ultimate attendance. Cadets will be

informed if other leadership training opportunities occur.

rd year cadets will be nominated to attend this HQ Air Force JROTC sponsored



Purpose. This guide assists designated cadets in successfully organizing,

managing, and leading an event. It contains useful information, but no guide can

foresee all possibilities; therefore, an OIC must think, plan, and act in a

responsible manner to ensure a successful event.

Responsibilities of OIC. An OIC is responsible for everything that happens at

an event. Recall that the OIC acts through the cadet commander with the

authority delegated by the SASI .The duties of an OIC must be taken very

seriously because other cadets, and the reputation of the cadet corps, rely on the

success of the OIC.

1.Use of the Guide. This guide is given to an OIC for every JROTC event. Items

not applicable to your event should be ignored. You will normally want to get a

specific folder to keep all of your notes for your event. You should review copies

of past “After Action Reports” for similar events

2. Communication. You must provide a progress report or short memo for the

weekly cadet staff meeting. Cite what you have done, what you are doing, and

what you need help on. You could be relieved of your responsibilities if it appears

that you are not making sufficient progress.

3.Assistance. If you want or need committee help with your event, submit

nominations to the Operations Officer who will make the final approval.

4.Planning. Prepare a timeline or list of milestones leading up to the activity.

Outline order all critical time-sensitive tasks with the date they must be

accomplished. This can be done on a calendar, list, or any other format you find

useful. A simple to-do list also helps. Everything should be included on this list.

You will need to think hard about everything that goes on this list. Discuss your

checklist with the ASI or SASI as need. Review the checklist and timeline


5.Event Improvements. Any event can be done better than the last similar

event. Think hard about your event and talk with other cadets. How can it be

done better? What didn’t work last time very well? If you were a participant,

what would help you enjoy it more? Remember, a major component of leadership

is taking the initiative and trying new things. Discuss your ideas with an




 If an event requires transportation by bus, a district “Transportation Request”

must be filled out. Coordinate with the ASI for form submission and payment


 Some events may require parent provided transportation cadet can drive

themselves or a cadet can find their own transportation to an event when they do

not meet at the school first. Seek help from the Parent Support Group when

assistance in arranging private transportation is required

 Maps & Directions. Ensure a map is available for drivers and parents.

Frequently, putting a copy of the map on the back of the “Event Information

Sheet” is the best way. The back of the “Event Information Sheet” is an area to

put a map or any information you have been sent on any event.


 If an event involves the use of school facilities, other than the JROTC classroom,

a school or district facilities request form must be filled out. Coordinate submission

of this form with an Instructor as soon as possible to ensure that the facilities are

available. Requests for chairs and tables and other special needs are normally

done on this form as well.

 Coordination requirements for use of other facilities vary greatly. Frequently,

telephone coordination starts this process. It is always a good idea to write a

brief letter confirming the date, time, and facilities to be used. A copy of this

letter should be kept and filed with the after action report.

8.Equipment. Make a checklist of everything needed so that nothing is left

behind on the day of the event.

9. History. Ensure someone is designated to document major events. Should the

event be video taped or should still pictures be taken? Ensure equipment and

film/tape are available.

10.Food & Drinks. Some events require coordination for meals. Often, all that is

required is to coordinate the availability of Mrs. or money to pay for food or

drinks. If coolers are required, they should be checked ahead of time to ensure

they are available and clean. Ice can be obtained from the school If cooking is

required extra planning and thought is also necessary. Plan all food, drinks,

silverware, plates, cups, cooking utensils, seasoning, napkins, etc. Make a list and

have others check it. Details are easy to overlook!

11.Event Information Sheet. An “Event Information Sheet” must be filled out

for every JROTC event. It should be available in the JROTC classroom for the two

weeks prior to an event. Individual sheets work very well.

12.Participant Selection and Notification. OICs must select participants

from the volunteers in a fair way. Priority should normally be granted to those


who sign up earlier. Cadet past performance can also be factored into the


13.Event Supervision. The OIC is the cadet in charge of an event. OIC’s move

around and not get deeply involved in any one aspect of the event. Ensure

sufficient oversight is given to all of the details so that problems can be predicted

and dealt with before they problem arise. Do not assume that the SASI or ASI

will be doing this . Events are leadership exercises and an opportunity to practice

leadership and management skills. Caution – do not go on a “power trip.” The

Commander and Staff are also responsible for the success of an event..

14.Setup and Cleanup. Plan carefully for setup and cleanup requirements.

Decorations require a specific plan ahead of time. This plan should be written for

a major event such as an awards banquet. If there is a large amount of work to

be done plan to have smaller groups for specific tasks. Cleanup is frequently a

problem area. After an event the level of motivation generally goes down; plan

for this. Select reliable workers for the event cleanup. Plan sufficient time and

make certain all of the materials required will be in place.

15.Money Collection. Coordinate with the event supervising Instructor if ticket

sales or collection of money is a component of an event.

16.Uniforms. Specify the requirement and combination if uniforms are worn to an

event. Report uniform Violations to the Operations Officer for action.

17.Merits/Demerits. Ascertain how many merits will be given for an event.

Ensure you have an accurate volunteer and attendance list. Provide such lists

within three days after the events to must ensure merits can be recorded and

ribbon information is available to the personnel officer for awards.

18.Appreciation/Commendation Correspondence. Submit names of

individuals who helped in a significant way with an event to the Cadet

Commander for letters recognizing their contributions.

19. After Action Report. Submit an “After Action Report.” It should include

information on what went well, what didn’t go well, and suggestions that would

assist the next OIC of a similar event. Include details on contacts, and phone

numbers. Attach a copy of the “Event Information Sheet,” and any other letters,

invitations, or other significant documents. The key to the After Action Report is

making it complete, include everything you used! If you spent any significant

amount of money (more than one hundred dollars) you should also attach a copy

of a budget. The After Action Report must be done within one week after the


How to Execute Change Step

Feet- Change StepGive the command, Change Step, MARCH! on the right foot. In the image at right, you can see the foot placements just before, during and right after giving the command. The following is what each service manual says on the specific execution of the command.

A non-military explanation of the steps:
The tempo is 120 SPM (steps per minute). We can mark each step like this (the numbers are an example of we count it musically):




To execute Change Step, it looks like this with the command, MARCH, called on the first right step for our scenario:




The Step-Step-Step, happens quickly and not at the same tempo. If you execute it at the same tempo, you will never change your step pattern, you will still be on the same foot.

The Army

This movement is executed automatically whenever a Soldier finds himself out of step with all other members of the formation. It is only executed while marching forward with a 30- inch step. To change step, the command Change Step, MARCH is given as the right foot strikes the marching surface. On the command of execution MARCH, take one more step with the left foot, then in one count place the right toe near the heel of the left foot and step off again with the left foot. The arms swing naturally. This movement is executed automatically whenever a Soldier finds himself out of step with all other members of the formation.”

The Marine Corps (Navy & Coast Guard)

“2212. TO CHANGE STEP. The purpose of this movement is to change the cadence count without changing the rhythm of the cadence.

  1. The command is “Change Step, MARCH.” It may be given while marching at quick or double time, marking time, or double timing in place. The command of execution is given as the right foot strikes the deck.
  2. While Marching at Quick Time or Double Time
    • a. On “MARCH,” take one more step, 30 or 36 inches, as appropriate.
    • b. As your right foot comes forward to the next step, place the toe near the left heel and step out again with the left foot. This changes the cadence count, but not the rhythm.
  3. While Marking Time
    • a. On “MARCH,” lift and lower the left foot twice in succession.
    • b. The second time it touches the deck, raise the right foot and continue marking time.
  4. While Double Timing in Place
    • a. On “MARCH,” hop twice on the left foot.
    • b. Continue double timing in place.”

The Air Force

“The command is Change Step, MARCH. On the command MARCH, given as the right foot strikes the ground, the airman takes one more 24-inch step with the left foot. Then in one count, place the ball of the right foot alongside the heel of the left foot, suspend arm swing, and shift the weight of the body to the right foot. Step off with the left foot in a 24-inch step, resuming coordinated arm swing. The upper portion of the body remains at the position of attention throughout.”

No matter which service, DO NOT turn turn your hips and/or shoulders to the right, keep them squared forward to the Line of March.

JROTC Drill Team Issues


My name is John and I was selected to be the drill commander for this year. It’s only been a few days and we are already having problems, especially between my selected leaders. The whole atmosphere changed the next day when my AI handed me the drill cord, it was like my leaders didn’t want to socialize with me anymore (Problem 1). Some of them actually fought with me about getting the position (Problem 2). Others try to take over while I’m teaching, but I need my leaders, I know I can’t do it on my own. I try talking to them in a meeting or even individually but they never listen. I don’t want to yell at them to do things or baby my drill team becuase we just started and I don’t want to scare off the LET1s by yelling at someone, but my leaders don’t want to work with me. I’ve been kicked out of the staff chats and someone showed me everything they were saying. I know as a drill commander it’s my job to just concentrate on my team and get things done but now I just feel I’m on my own here and I don’t know what to do.

Hi John,

What a dilemma! It may not help, but you are not alone, metaphorically. This is a common problem in JROTC.

Addressing Problem 1. Leadership is lonely- or can be. The social issues are part of what happens. Leaders begin to distance themselves from those they lead when selected for a position- to a certain point. For a high school cadet, this can be tough as teenagers are very social creatures.

Side note on leadership. While each member should be treated the same at the beginning of your new assignment, you will see which team members need to be treated differently to get the same results. It has to do with personality and also level of training. Here is what I mean.

Addressing Problem 2. The reason this is happening is because your cadets do not see leadership in you- or they THINK they don’t see it. Let’s change that. Come at them with a plan and, here it is.

Bad JROTC instructor? Click here to read if this may play a part.

smart goal setting conceptYou have three types of goals, short-, medium- and long-term. RD= Regulation Drill; XD= Exhibition Drill

See the article, Create  Goals Not Dreams. SMART goals are best. Image from studenysuccess.unc.edu.

Your short-term goals:

  • Assign Drill Team Trainer and Lead LET1 to ensure LET1s are fully trained in RD
  • Ensure all drill team members attend practices
  • Get two/three volunteers to help you plan the team’s XD platoon/flight (and squad/element) (armed and unarmed) sequence(s)
  • Encourage all team members to practice XD at home (Check out this sample of some basic armed XD that I teach)

Your Mid-term goals:

  • Assign Commanders* for Squad and Platoon RD Armed and Unarmed sequences (must memorize sequence)
  • Assign Backup Commanders* for Squad and Platoon RD Armed and Unarmed sequences (must also memorize sequence)
  • Learn all RD sequences and perform from memory

*Armed and Unarmed Squad and Platoon Commanders and their Backups are only in charge of that specific portion of the team when in competition only. Assign these commanders as you see fit- have tryouts in three weeks, that gives team members enough time to memorize the sequence they want to command. You can break this down further if you have a male and female team.

Your long-term goals:

  • Attend and win X-number of competitions (identify all competitions coming up)
  • Assign someone to help you with planning transportation to events

Write all of these goals on the classroom board during a team meeting. Tell the team this is what you have come up with and ask for their input about any goals you may have missed and how to achieve the goals. You must show strong leadership at all times and ignore the petty immaturity that happens outside of drill team time. During drill team time- practice and meetings- it’s you who is in charge, but you do not need to be a hammer. Be assertive and know what you are doing. The only way to know what you are doing is to learn and read.

Read all of my articles with the Drill Team Training tag and Ask DrillMaster tag . Give the tag to all of your teammates and get them to read them as well. Everyone needs to be educated.

Dear reader– what is your input? Please comment below.